Sunday, May 24, 2020

Essay on History of Rap - 1451 Words

History of Rap The most popular and influential form of African-American pop music of the 1980s and 1990s, rap is also one of the most controversial styles of the rock era. And not just among the guardians of cultural taste and purity that have always been counted among rock n rolls chief enemies--Black, White, rock and soul audiences continue to fiercely debate the musical and social merits of rap, whose most radical innovations subverted many of the musical and cultural tenets upon which rock was built. Antecedents of rap are easy to find in rock with other kinds of music. Music is often used to tell a story, often with spoken rhymes over instruments and rhythms. Talking blues, spoken passages of sanctified prose in gospel,†¦show more content†¦Jamaican DJs (DJ Kool Herc has been credited as the first) mixed sounds from several turntables, devices that would become a rap trademark. Although mixing from large sounds systems began to be employed at New York house parties in the 1970s, it d idnt really emerge as a recorded sound until the Sugarhill Gangs Rappers Delight in 1979. While many critics and listeners shrugged the song aside as a fluke novelty hit, the early rap sound--usually composed of slangy, boastful spoken rhymes over basic bass and percussion grooves--continued to spread in the early 80s, due in large part to the efforts of the Sugarhill label itself. Grandmaster Flashs hard-hitting 1982 single, The Message, really stands as raps watershed mark, with a massive impact belied by its relatively modest peak on the pop charts. No longer could rap be ignored as a frivolous microgenre; here was straight up social commentary, reporting from the front lines of the ghetto with more immediacy than almost any newspaper or television broadcast. From its inception, rap indured a lot of hostility from listeners--many, but not all, White--who found the music too harsh, monotonous, and lacking in traditional melodic values. However, millions of others--often, though not always, young African-Americans from underprivileged inner city backgrounds--found and immediate connection with the style. Here was poetry of theShow MoreRelatedThe History Of Rap Music1751 Words   |  8 PagesThis paper will trace the history of rap music (also known as hip-hop). The origins of this music are found in the experiences of urban African Americans during the 1970s. One of the most unique elements of rap music is its vocal style. In 1979, the record â€Å"Rapper’s Delight† by the Sugar Hill Gang defined this style with its use of â€Å"speedy staccato word play and verbal dexterity† (Perkins 11). However, as pointed out by one of rap’s early leaders, Afrika Bambaataa, the true roots of this vocalRead MoreHistory Of Hip Hop And Rap Essay1411 Words   |  6 PagesOwen Shields English IV 22 September 2015 The History of Hip-Hop and Rap The controversy of Hip-Hop and Rap being that it is â€Å"only about violence† or â€Å"uninfluential† is one that has been around since the eighties. But is it really all about violence, sex, drugs, or protest? Yes, there are rap groups that only rap about violence, sex, drugs, or protest, but that is a genre called â€Å"trap† music. When mentioning of the original artists in the trap music genre, rappers such as Waka Flocka Flame, GucciRead MorePopular Culture in Rap Music1037 Words   |  5 PagesEnglish Comp 1 4/21/12 Popular Culture in Rap Music The history of rap music started in Africa with rhythmic beats using drums. From Africa to the Caribbean islands it came to America and started its influential change on American Music. The first rap song to take flight and make its mark on the up and coming rap culture was the Sugar Hill Gang in 1979. In 1986 rap music finally reached the top of the music charts and was show on MTV for the first time featuring Run-DMC. Continuing to changeRead MoreWomen Of Hip Hop Culture Essay1723 Words   |  7 PagesWomen have decided to consume hip hop regardless of the sexism and machismo of their rap artist spouses. Historically, black women who have sex with other women haven’t been recognized in the Black community. Also, the expectations are the same in hip hop culture because men reject lesbians. An example is the murder in 2003 of Sakia Gunn after she declared her lesbian identity to a group of males. We all know that in hip hop culture men predominate and precisely masculine. Wom en can achieve a higherRead MoreRap Music And Its Influence On Society1209 Words   |  5 PagesThroughout history, music has been used to express the feelings of people or groups whom may have no other outlet to express themselves. The best example of this occurrence would be the lower class of America’s use of rap music. Rap music started out as a fun variation of disco with the purpose to make people dance and enjoy themselves, but it later transformed into one of the best outlets to express the struggles of poverty in the United States. The genre gained popularity when the song â€Å"RapperRead MoreRap : The Black Community With Vigor And Mass Appeal1534 Words   |  7 PagesRap which originated in Africa was used by storytellers known as Griots, to relay stories about family history or current events, set to the rhythm of a drum. This culture was then brought to the west during the 1600’s when Africans were captured and made slaves in America ( (Mize) Instead of storytellers relaying family history, rap evolved to hidden communication between slaves that were undecipherable by their oppressors. These songs were more about the struggle of the life of a slave, and allRead MoreHow Hip Hop Is Influenced By African Americans And Hispanic Americans909 Words   |  4 Pagesdifferent from rap because it also includes elements of pop ,some say it was a beautiful, prideful expression of music, art, and dance from a backdrop of poverty. Since that ignition in a New York City borough, it has inspired people from all across the world to produce this genre of music. However in 2015 Hip-Hop Continues to modernize and change ,these days caucasian rappers have begun to climb the Hip-Hop charts ,and this has spiked controversy all over,some believe that the culture of rap should remainRead MoreCharles Dickens A Christmas Carol Essay922 Words   |  4 Pagestelevision shows. Each rendition of A Christmas Carol provides its own spin, but none a re quite as unique as the â€Å"Epic Rap Battles of History: Donald Trump vs. Ebenezer Scrooge.† This rap battle uses key phrases, symbolism, and the assumption that the viewer is familiar with A Christmas Carol to tell Scrooge’s story with an unmistakably modern twist. A typical Epic Rap Battle of History contains two main characters or groups competing against one another to see who can spew the vilest insults. EpicLLOYDRead MoreHip-hop was a cultural movement. It emerged in the early 1970s from the South Bronx. Hip-hop came1300 Words   |  6 Pagesnot many rap about the need for change. By exploring the change of hip-hop from the civil rights movement to the modern day hip-hop this paper will attempt to show that hip-hop has been grown from a powerful tool of social awareness in to a monster of mass consumption. Annotated Sources. Aldridge Derrick â€Å"Introduction: Hip Hop in History: Past, Present, and Future.† The Journal Of African American History 90.3 (2005): 190-195. Association for the Study of African American Life and History. AldrigeRead MoreThe Music Of The Hip Hop1412 Words   |  6 Pagesbasically a cultural movement that originated in the Suburbs of cities. It was began to evolve in 1970 and in particular by the Americans who of African descent (American Africans) . Rap is a type of singing. It combines the performance of different rap utter words without committing to a particular tune, and rhythm. Rap began in Kingston, Jamaica City at the end of the sixties as a kind new musical was derived from dancehall. It has spread in the United States at the beginning of the seventies in the

Wednesday, May 13, 2020

Chemistry Abbreviations Starting With the Letter L

Chemistry abbreviations and acronyms are common in all fields of science. This collection offers common abbreviations and acronyms beginning with the letter L used in chemistry and chemical engineering. List  of Abbreviations Starting With the Letter L l - angular momentum quantum numberL or l - lengthL- - LevorotatoryL - literl - liquidLa - LanthanumLA - Linoleic AcidLA - Lactic AcidLA - Lewis Acid LAE - Lyman Alpha EmitterLAB - Linear Alkyl BenzeneLASER - Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of RadiationLB - Lewis Baselb - poundLBNL - Lawrence Berkeley National LaboratoryLC - Liquid CooledLC - Liquid ChromatographyLC - Liquid CrystalLC-MS Liquid Chromatography with Mass SpectroscopyLCB - Long Chain BaseLCP - Le Chateliers PrincipleLCS - Laboratory Control SampleLD - Lethal DoseLD50 - Lethal Dose—50%LDF - London Dispersion ForceLDP - Low-Density PolyethyleneLEOGER - Losing Electron Oxidation/Gaining Electron ReductionLEP - Large Electron-Positron colliderLF - Low FrequencyLFL - Lower Flammable LimitLG - Leaving GroupLGB - Lotte Gas BoilerLH - Low HeatLH - Light HydrocarbonLH2 - Liquid HydrogenLHC - Large Hadron ColliderLHH - Light, Heat, HumidityLi - LithiumLIBS - Laser-Induced Breakdown SpectroscopyLiP - Lithium Poly mer batteryLiq - LiquidLLD - Liquid Level DetectionLLE - Liquid-Liquid EquilibriumLLNL - Lawrence Livermore National LaboratoryLMA - Low Moisture AbsorptionLME - Liquid Metal EmbrittlementLMH - Liquid HydrogenLN - Liquid Nitrogenln - natural logarithmLNG - Liquid Natural GasLO - Localized OrbitalsLOD - Loss On DryingLOQ - Limit Of QuantificationLOX - Liquid OxygenLP - Liquid PetroleumLP - Liquid PropaneLPA - Liquid Pressure AmplifierLPG - Liquid Petroleum GasLq - LiquidLqd - LiquidLr - LawrenciumLSE - Low Surface EnergyLSD - Lysergic Acid DiethylamideLT - Less ThanLt - lightLT - Low TemperatureLTE - Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium LTG - Liquid To GasLTOEL - Long Term Occupational Exposure LimitLu - LutetiumLUMO - Lowest Unoccupied Molecular OrbitalLV - Low VolatilityLVS - Large Volume SamplerLw - Lawrencium (Changed to Lr)LWC - Light Water ContentLWG - Liquid Water in Grams

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Phil History Free Essays

Many of us didn’t know who are we and where we came from. From the quote â€Å"Nothing of me is original. I am the combined effort of everyone I’ve ever known†, it says that we, Filipinos don’t have any original identity, our identity, like the political, social, economical, and cultural that we have today, came up from the colonization of the other country, like Spain, America, and Japan. We will write a custom essay sample on Phil History or any similar topic only for you Order Now Before the colonization of Spain, America, and Japan, Philippines said to have a vast culture In political, economical, social and cultural. In 7,107 Islands In the Philippines there are different people living with different political, economical, social and cultural approach. In pre-colonization, the system of government decentralized, meaning there is no center government to govern the other small government. The leader of the barbarian is a Data, Confederacy is a Rah, and Sultanate is a sultan. Their Judicial system Is oral, which means, whatever the law imposed by the leader It will be spoken through a messenger. They formed alliances through the process of â€Å"Sandburg†. Some lived near bodies of water, and some lived In the mountains or rest. The lifestyle of the people living near the bodies of water are fishing, boat building, pottery, farming, and so many more, while the people living in the mountains are swished, farming, hunting, gathering, etc. People living before the colonization, have a social strata, first is the imaging and data class, a ruling and warrior class. Second Is the maharaja, a wealthy class. Third Is the Tamaki or freeman, a commoner. Last Is the Labial or Roller, debt peons. People In the pre colonization have a system of writing called Babylon. They also have religion, called minims, they worship anoint/Anita, data and their priest/sees is called Babylon. The Muslims saw Misguidance and Sulk first before the Spaniards came to the Philippines and introduce their religion called Islam, where their God is Allah and prophet is Mohammed All. When the Spanish came to Philippines, their only purpose Is the g’s: God, Gold and Glory. They colonize us in two ways, one is with religion and the other Is with the use of sword. Religion came to victorious. The Spaniards gave us new way to live our life; they also introduce us to their religion, which is Christianity. We, Filipinos at home set up altars in the Hispanic tradition, adorned with Catholic images, flowers and candles. During fiestas, most communities organize church services and religious processions in honor of a patron saint. Also, we inherit the holiday of the Spaniards, for January 1 – New years day, March or April – Seaman Santa also called Holy week, October 31 – November 2 – All saints day and all souls day, December 24 – Niche Buena also known as Christmas Eve, and December 25 – Christmas. They created two governments, one is the central government and the other is the local government. The central government is headed by Governor-General, who is the commander-in-chief, head of an army and navy, he also have veto power, meaning if he seems the law is not good enough, he can nullify or cancel the law. He Is the Vice-Real Patron, and lastly, he Is the president provinces and the leader is called Lacked Mayor, Corrections, which are unified provinces, the leader is Corridors, Pueblo-towns, the leader is Gubernatorial, Cicada, the leader is Mountaintop and Barbarian, the leader is Caber. In the course of Spanish colonization in the Philippines, the friars instructed opulent Baroque-style church edifices. These structures are still found today everywhere across the country and they symbolize the cultural influence of Spain in Filipino life. The opulence of these edifices was clearly visible in the ornate facades, paintings, and sculpture, as well as in the behavioral patterns of the people and in the intricate rituals associated with Roman Catholic churches. While it is true that the Spaniards exploited labor in the construction of the imposing Baroque-style sanctuaries for Roman Catholic worship, it is also true that these same edifices came the means by which Filipino artistic talents and inclinations were expressed. The carpenters, masons, craftsmen, and artisans were mainly Filipinos. In this way, the Roman Catholic Church and religion influenced Filipino architectural and building style, even as the rituals and festivities of the Church influenced Filipino dances, songs, paintings, and literary writings. Through these influences, the Church afforded the Filipinos abundant opportunities for both solemn rites and Joyous festivities and celebrations known as â€Å"fiestas. The services inside the Catholic hurries often spilled out into the thoroughfare in the form of colorful and pageant- filled religious processions in which the rich and the poor participated. Dining, drinking, and merrymaking often followed or accompanied such religious activities. During these feasts, Spanish culinary specialties like â€Å"paella† which means a dish consisting of a mixture of rice, chicken and shellfish, â€Å"razor valerian† which means glutinous rice and chicken cooked in coconut milk, and â €Å"lingua† meaning sautà ©ed ox- tongue usually with mushroom sauce became part of the local table fare. The rites ND feasts served to provide relief from the drudgery of humdrum village existence, to release pent-up social and economic frustrations, or to foster community spirit and unity. With the help of the Americans, Philippines got its independence after the sacrifices they undergo under the Spaniards. After the independence, Americans redistribute the enormous land properties that were given during the Spanish period to the Catholic Church. Even though they redistribute the land, the small farmers didn’t get any land because they can’t prove that they are the owner of that land and they can’t pay the asked price. The lands became the property of large landowners. American General Douglas Mac Arthur landed in Elite, one of the biggest islands in Central Island of the Philippines with 700 vessel and 174 000 army and navy. Since the American led us, the government was divided into three branches: Judiciary, system of courts that interprets and applies the law in the name of state. It also provides a mechanism for the resolution of disputes among people. Legislative, the one who make the law or pertaining to the enactment of law. Last is, Executive, the one who enforces the law or have the power to put plans, actions or laws into effect. There are also schools that were built during their time, like the agricultural schools; Philippine Normal University and University of the Philippines. Their medium of instruction was English and the teachers are called Atomies. Also, there were public schools that were open up for the education of the Filipinos. Also, during the introduced to us by the Americans and approximately three hundred thousand Filipinos become protestant. In the economical part, Americans built roads, streets, bridges, and new infrastructures that made movement of products and services more efficient. It also improved the Philippines economy by the development of new industries, increase in agricultural production. In the social part, Filipinos learned to play games, watch movies, new kinds of music introduced to us by Americans, using respectful greetings like â€Å"Magenta magma PDP’ were replaced by merely saying â€Å"Good morning†, â€Å"Paganism’ was replaced by kissing the cheeks of parents and elders as a sign of respect. We lost our sense of â€Å"banish. † Women wear dresses, high- heeled shoes, and a handbag, while men, Suits, polo shirts, ties and Jeans. The Japanese started when they started attacking the Pearl Habit. It is also in the Japanese time, when the Filipinos do the death march from Bataan to San Fernando Pangaea where many of Filipino died. In their occupation, the Japanese introduced to us duck farming, fish breeding, and other influences like removing slippers before entering the house, bonsai planting, and manufacturing farm tools and war weapons. They also taught us origami, their martial art, Judo, and tanning of deer skin. Since the Japanese where here for Just a short period of time, they didn’t leave much of their culture but they change the way things are done in the Philippines. Just like strict curfews was enforced. Even though our country has an identity of our own before the coming of the colonizers, like Filipinos know how to survive and have their own ways to live, they can create things by the use of what they see in their surroundings, but we had been greatly influenced by the country that colonized us. I think that the three countries that colonized us changed our political, economical, cultural and social system of our country. I think our identity today, as Filipinos are mixed from the Spanish, Americans and Japanese influence to us. Our lifestyles that we have now came from different influences of other country to us. Today, some of the Filipinos still do â€Å"banish† in some of the provinces in the Philippines, There are many Spanish influences on Filipino culture. Thousands of Spanish words are load in most Filipino languages. We, Filipinos sometime speak Spanish, when we have simple conversation, like mesa, silly, and many other Spanish words, all over the Philippines. The traditions of the Spanish, their holidays, their religion, and even their government are also the influences of the Spaniards as they colonized our country. The influence of the Spanish, like â€Å"paganism as inkstands† still lives in us or in American influence, â€Å"packaging as pissing† some of the Filipino do this as a respect to the elderly or to their parents. The way of how we dress is also influenced by Spanish and America. We wear coat and tie for going to work, Barron and flapping dress for attending marriage or baptism, and gown or dresses for attending formal parties. We also adopt their government which is the local and central government. We also adopt the system of government of America given to us, the legislative, the Judiciary and the executive. With the help of the American, the agriculture of our country has en improved. How to cite Phil History, Papers

Phil History Free Essays

Many of us didn’t know who are we and where we came from. From the quote â€Å"Nothing of me is original. I am the combined effort of everyone I’ve ever known†, it says that we, Filipinos don’t have any original identity, our identity, like the political, social, economical, and cultural that we have today, came up from the colonization of the other country, like Spain, America, and Japan. We will write a custom essay sample on Phil History or any similar topic only for you Order Now Before the colonization of Spain, America, and Japan, Philippines said to have a vast culture In political, economical, social and cultural. In 7,107 Islands In the Philippines there are different people living with different political, economical, social and cultural approach. In pre-colonization, the system of government decentralized, meaning there is no center government to govern the other small government. The leader of the barbarian is a Data, Confederacy is a Rah, and Sultanate is a sultan. Their Judicial system Is oral, which means, whatever the law imposed by the leader It will be spoken through a messenger. They formed alliances through the process of â€Å"Sandburg†. Some lived near bodies of water, and some lived In the mountains or rest. The lifestyle of the people living near the bodies of water are fishing, boat building, pottery, farming, and so many more, while the people living in the mountains are swished, farming, hunting, gathering, etc. People living before the colonization, have a social strata, first is the imaging and data class, a ruling and warrior class. Second Is the maharaja, a wealthy class. Third Is the Tamaki or freeman, a commoner. Last Is the Labial or Roller, debt peons. People In the pre colonization have a system of writing called Babylon. They also have religion, called minims, they worship anoint/Anita, data and their priest/sees is called Babylon. The Muslims saw Misguidance and Sulk first before the Spaniards came to the Philippines and introduce their religion called Islam, where their God is Allah and prophet is Mohammed All. When the Spanish came to Philippines, their only purpose Is the g’s: God, Gold and Glory. They colonize us in two ways, one is with religion and the other Is with the use of sword. Religion came to victorious. The Spaniards gave us new way to live our life; they also introduce us to their religion, which is Christianity. We, Filipinos at home set up altars in the Hispanic tradition, adorned with Catholic images, flowers and candles. During fiestas, most communities organize church services and religious processions in honor of a patron saint. Also, we inherit the holiday of the Spaniards, for January 1 – New years day, March or April – Seaman Santa also called Holy week, October 31 – November 2 – All saints day and all souls day, December 24 – Niche Buena also known as Christmas Eve, and December 25 – Christmas. They created two governments, one is the central government and the other is the local government. The central government is headed by Governor-General, who is the commander-in-chief, head of an army and navy, he also have veto power, meaning if he seems the law is not good enough, he can nullify or cancel the law. He Is the Vice-Real Patron, and lastly, he Is the president provinces and the leader is called Lacked Mayor, Corrections, which are unified provinces, the leader is Corridors, Pueblo-towns, the leader is Gubernatorial, Cicada, the leader is Mountaintop and Barbarian, the leader is Caber. In the course of Spanish colonization in the Philippines, the friars instructed opulent Baroque-style church edifices. These structures are still found today everywhere across the country and they symbolize the cultural influence of Spain in Filipino life. The opulence of these edifices was clearly visible in the ornate facades, paintings, and sculpture, as well as in the behavioral patterns of the people and in the intricate rituals associated with Roman Catholic churches. While it is true that the Spaniards exploited labor in the construction of the imposing Baroque-style sanctuaries for Roman Catholic worship, it is also true that these same edifices came the means by which Filipino artistic talents and inclinations were expressed. The carpenters, masons, craftsmen, and artisans were mainly Filipinos. In this way, the Roman Catholic Church and religion influenced Filipino architectural and building style, even as the rituals and festivities of the Church influenced Filipino dances, songs, paintings, and literary writings. Through these influences, the Church afforded the Filipinos abundant opportunities for both solemn rites and Joyous festivities and celebrations known as â€Å"fiestas. The services inside the Catholic hurries often spilled out into the thoroughfare in the form of colorful and pageant- filled religious processions in which the rich and the poor participated. Dining, drinking, and merrymaking often followed or accompanied such religious activities. During these feasts, Spanish culinary specialties like â€Å"paella† which means a dish consisting of a mixture of rice, chicken and shellfish, â€Å"razor valerian† which means glutinous rice and chicken cooked in coconut milk, and â €Å"lingua† meaning sautà ©ed ox- tongue usually with mushroom sauce became part of the local table fare. The rites ND feasts served to provide relief from the drudgery of humdrum village existence, to release pent-up social and economic frustrations, or to foster community spirit and unity. With the help of the Americans, Philippines got its independence after the sacrifices they undergo under the Spaniards. After the independence, Americans redistribute the enormous land properties that were given during the Spanish period to the Catholic Church. Even though they redistribute the land, the small farmers didn’t get any land because they can’t prove that they are the owner of that land and they can’t pay the asked price. The lands became the property of large landowners. American General Douglas Mac Arthur landed in Elite, one of the biggest islands in Central Island of the Philippines with 700 vessel and 174 000 army and navy. Since the American led us, the government was divided into three branches: Judiciary, system of courts that interprets and applies the law in the name of state. It also provides a mechanism for the resolution of disputes among people. Legislative, the one who make the law or pertaining to the enactment of law. Last is, Executive, the one who enforces the law or have the power to put plans, actions or laws into effect. There are also schools that were built during their time, like the agricultural schools; Philippine Normal University and University of the Philippines. Their medium of instruction was English and the teachers are called Atomies. Also, there were public schools that were open up for the education of the Filipinos. Also, during the introduced to us by the Americans and approximately three hundred thousand Filipinos become protestant. In the economical part, Americans built roads, streets, bridges, and new infrastructures that made movement of products and services more efficient. It also improved the Philippines economy by the development of new industries, increase in agricultural production. In the social part, Filipinos learned to play games, watch movies, new kinds of music introduced to us by Americans, using respectful greetings like â€Å"Magenta magma PDP’ were replaced by merely saying â€Å"Good morning†, â€Å"Paganism’ was replaced by kissing the cheeks of parents and elders as a sign of respect. We lost our sense of â€Å"banish. † Women wear dresses, high- heeled shoes, and a handbag, while men, Suits, polo shirts, ties and Jeans. The Japanese started when they started attacking the Pearl Habit. It is also in the Japanese time, when the Filipinos do the death march from Bataan to San Fernando Pangaea where many of Filipino died. In their occupation, the Japanese introduced to us duck farming, fish breeding, and other influences like removing slippers before entering the house, bonsai planting, and manufacturing farm tools and war weapons. They also taught us origami, their martial art, Judo, and tanning of deer skin. Since the Japanese where here for Just a short period of time, they didn’t leave much of their culture but they change the way things are done in the Philippines. Just like strict curfews was enforced. Even though our country has an identity of our own before the coming of the colonizers, like Filipinos know how to survive and have their own ways to live, they can create things by the use of what they see in their surroundings, but we had been greatly influenced by the country that colonized us. I think that the three countries that colonized us changed our political, economical, cultural and social system of our country. I think our identity today, as Filipinos are mixed from the Spanish, Americans and Japanese influence to us. Our lifestyles that we have now came from different influences of other country to us. Today, some of the Filipinos still do â€Å"banish† in some of the provinces in the Philippines, There are many Spanish influences on Filipino culture. Thousands of Spanish words are load in most Filipino languages. We, Filipinos sometime speak Spanish, when we have simple conversation, like mesa, silly, and many other Spanish words, all over the Philippines. The traditions of the Spanish, their holidays, their religion, and even their government are also the influences of the Spaniards as they colonized our country. The influence of the Spanish, like â€Å"paganism as inkstands† still lives in us or in American influence, â€Å"packaging as pissing† some of the Filipino do this as a respect to the elderly or to their parents. The way of how we dress is also influenced by Spanish and America. We wear coat and tie for going to work, Barron and flapping dress for attending marriage or baptism, and gown or dresses for attending formal parties. We also adopt their government which is the local and central government. We also adopt the system of government of America given to us, the legislative, the Judiciary and the executive. With the help of the American, the agriculture of our country has en improved. How to cite Phil History, Papers

Monday, May 4, 2020

Project Procurement Management

Question: Discuss about the Project Procurement Management. Answer: Introduction The oil industry is facing considerable challenges for selling their products because the sale point of oil has decreased. The only way for the oil industry to gain profit from their business is to increase their efficiency and reduce the wastage of products. The complexity and the risk of the business have also increased because majority of the oil reserve throughout the world has been discovered and the depletion of the resource can affect the economy of the country. The report discusses about the procurement strategy and the risk associated with the oil and gas project. The strategy implemented for sourcing and outsourcing the resources required for increasing the efficiency of the current business process is also discussed in the report. Procurement strategy Different procurement strategies are applied for the advancement of the business process of the oil and gas industries. Contractual workers took after endorsed practices for straightforward outlines, to convey against cost and time objectives. Engineers having high bar for advancements ought to be decided for running distinctive operation of the business. The engineers are appointed for the calculation of the complexity that can be faced by the organization for improving the efficiency of the current business process (Badiru and Osisanya 2016). For example, the working environment of oil and gas industry is analyzed and the technology that can be implemented for the amplifying the production and reducing the cost of production is required to be selected. The resources that are available in the organization and the resources that are required to be outsourced are gathered. A project schedule is required to be prepared for proper management of the project and assigning the resources to the task. The budget is also required to be prepared for increasing the efficiency of the framework of the current business (Salazar-Aramayoet al. 2013). The project manager is responsible for monitoring the progress of the work and should have good communication skills for communicating with the higher level officials and select the best technology to increase the efficiency of the business. The following structure is required to be followed by the project development team for getting a fruitful result from the oil and gas industry. The choice of the technology is an important factor for the success of the business (Grant 2013). The structures are as follows: Formalizing the checkpoints and phases of the project Aligning the current business needs with the requirement of the project Auditing the progress of the project for elimination of risk associated with the development of the project Creation of a project budget and maintaining the cash flow for the progress of the project. Many oil organizations are justifying their obtainment connections, moving from many shallow connections to less yet more profound ones. For instance, some IOCs are attempting to spend a large portion of their acquirement spending plan with their main 40 merchants, while a couple of years prior that share may have gone to more than 250 organizations (Kelland 2014). Taken in general, these changes could return 5% on cost efficiencies. Acquisition patterns take after cycles, be that as it may, and the push for neighborhood content necessities could part the acquirement pool once more. On the off chance that nearby substance endeavors are to prevail over the long haul, NOCs and other oil and gas organizations should work with neighborhood providers to manufacture a solid establishment of bolster administrations. Better devices can likewise enhance acquirement (Yusuf et al. 2014). One organization reclassified its agreement work breakdown into related contracting modules, permitting it to reassign some temporary worker occupations and spare 13% on products and enterprises (Al Hammadi and Bernard 2016). Worldwide organizations ought to likewise endeavor to oversee providers at the worldwide level and guarantee that they are working with the provider's A group, which includes esteem (and lessens dissatisfaction).Preparation of contact with the stakeholders associated with the project and insuring the final product from any disaster can also increase the efficiency of the oil and gas industry. Strategic sourcing and outsourcing The efficiency of the oil and gas industry can be increased and the cost of operation can be decreased by following some of the business procedures such as outsourcing the technical component required for the oil exploration and sourcing the man power for supervising the business resources. Small companies can be contracted for handling the technical component and suppliers must be appointed for delivering the resources. Outsourcing respects the exchange of merchandise and enterprises generation, already completed inside, to outside suppliers (de Carvalho,Patah and de Souza Bido 2015). The targets of outsourcing concern expenses and capabilities. As respects the previous, outsourcing ?rms go for lessening direct operating costs, although it ought to be noted that cost decreases in the short run are counterbalanced by a reliable cost development because of searching for supplier, setting-up contracts, transferring in-house exercises to the suppliers and managing the progressing contract to maintain a strategic distance from dangers associated with advantage in favor of the outside temporary worker (monitoring, ongoing dealing, authorizing and arrangement of agreement changes, where essential). On account of products, the coordination expenses ought to likewise be incorporated. Different deficiencies are associated with the negative impact on lead and conveyance times and exactness (Ruqaishi and Bashir 2013). As respects abilities, outsourcing ?rms go for spend significant time in center capabilities and substituting non-center skills with contribution from expert suppliers (Yazdani, Ali Soukhakian and Reza Mozaffari 2014). This viewpoint must be precisely dissected by ?rms in their outsourcing choices in view of the dangers they can bring about: on the one side, in the short run, the genuine debilitating of the arrangement of capabilities ?rms have, and, on the opposite side, the undermining to the improvement of new innovative skills later on (Ruck, Plana and Edmunds 2016), so difficult the likelihood of organizing RD, outline and assembling exercises of providers. These two dangers, if brought about, can undermine ?rms' abilities to distinguish criteria to choose and screen the best supplier, and additionally to achieve a worthy concurrence on costs and other legally binding terms: in this way, over the long haul, ?rms are required to confront higher data asymmetry issues (due to their difficulties in surveying their potential suppliers) and, therefore, higher perils of pioneering conduct (Ahiaga-Dagbuiet et al. 2017). Disregarding rising enthusiasm for the openness, inquire about on OI stays awkward in light of the fact that the absence of an acknowledged de?nition of OI prompts to equivocalness (Connicket al. 2014). Surely, writing examinations openness as per alternate points of view; the most researched is the course of openness, yet others were additionally researched: the number/sorts of accomplices and the hierarchical structures to de?ne the connections among partners. As respects the 'bearing of openness', three models develop: the inbound, investigation or outside-in process, through which ?rms go for incorporating outer information and increment their ingenuity; the outbound, misuse or back to front process, through which ?rms go for gaining pro?ts by putting up thoughts for sale to the public, offering IP, and duplicating innovation, to quickly put up thoughts for sale to the public, and the coupled procedure that consolidates the two above procedures. There are suggestions regarding ca pabilities and expenses. As respects abilities, if the obtaining of outer learning is evident for the inbound procedure, it is additionally valid for the outbound procedure in light of the fact that by and large, ?rms remotely uncover their advancements just to evoke cooperation and thoughts trading (Shuen, Feiler and Teece 2014). As respects costs, the inbound procedure suggests obtaining costs, as well as costs associated with the investigation/determination of outside wellsprings of advancement. The outbound procedure suggests costs because of the need to assemble a cognizant methodology to pick what is to be uncovered outside and to put into practice their ability to permit innovations. Supply Risk There are different risk associated with the company if it does not improve its process and the effect of the risk is equally harmful for the society and the environment. Overseeing danger and opportunity is a nonstop procedure that obliges organizations to consider the most widely recognized dangers, as well as to have encounter alleviating surprising occasions. In the oil and gas industry, it's never been more imperative to oversee wellbeing, security and natural dangers, given the rising many-sided quality of operations and the investigation by controllers and partners (Parra and Bono 2016). Identification of the risks and assessment is a nonstop procedure all through a project life cycle and over the venture portfolio, considering a systemic point of view for the project, their stages and important dangers. The oil and gas industry is currently facing problem because most of the oil reserves throughout the world has been discovered and it confront steady difficulties, particularly as far as free market activity. More focus should be given on the supply chain of the oil and gas industries and the industry must supply according to the requirement or demand in the market. Focus must be given on the resource administration and reserving the oil and gas for maintaining the business (Silvestre and Gimenes 2017). Information system must be implemented for maintaining the records of the clients and their demands and their invoice in the current system of the organization. Acquirement and production network techniques can also be implemented in the front line for resolving the basic issues arising in the management of the organizational framework. It also helps in decreasing the production cost and increase the profit percentage of the current system The oil and gas industry is vigorously subject to providers to give complex administrations and basic gear to bolster continuous tasks and operation. Moreover, contract administration and customer relationship administration can collect information for the reputation or the financial damage caused by the supplier. To enhance provider relationship administration, organizations ought to receive a technique for provider benchmarking (Francis 2015). The strength of the oil and gas industry can be increased with collaborating with the other industries and maintaining a transparency in the current business. The uneven production of the oil and gas makes the price of the oil and gas volatile and thus it have an effect on the supply chain. The transaction cost of the produced oil and gas is required to be calculated using the total cost of ownership model and it helps the organization to calculate the exact value of the produced oil and gas (Olaniran et al. 2015). The cost model is used for the calculation of different expenses of the company related with the supplier. On account of the TCO advance it is more reasonable for long term sustainability and basic resources serious gear), the distinctive expenses, consists of securing expenses, operation and support expenses, are touched base at before picking the correct provider at the focused cost. Most of the oil and gas companies have embraced measures, for example, the TCO and cost models, but all the oil and gas industries are required to be using the model for proper calculation of the production and transaction cost (Bergh et al. 2014). The areas of the supplier relationship management is required to be analyzed and shrewd approach is required to be applied for determining the influence for deciding the correct contracting and acquisition procedure. Despite the fact that innovation is oiling and gas organizations to discover and separate more oil, the supply chain network is required to be considered and the procure management that give extra genuine esteem. The Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) frameworks can be applied in the business information system for analyzing the supplier and manage the supply chain easily (Williams, Kilanski and Muller 2014). These ERP frameworks ought to oblige request estimating, stock administration, contractual worker administration, e-obtainment and ace information administration. Request determining or combination of the demand with the production is an important factor for increasing the efficiency of the current supply chain of the oil and gas industry. ERP frameworks with an oil and gas framework oriented design can be used for managing the supply chain of network and keeping track on the organizational assets used in the oil and gas industry (Ablo 2015). There has been an outlook change in the procedure that the oil and gas organizations had grasped such as; e-acquisition and demonstrated enthusiasm for e-obtainment frameworks. Indeed, even with the application of the best-in-class production network measures and frameworks, it is believed, without a group of opportune individuals, best-in-class store network rehearse can't be maintained, nor can the full advantages of inventory network truly be delighted in. Likewise with some other industries, oil and gas industries additionally needs redefine its thinking procedures and find the deficiency of production network and acquisition ability because of a maturing workforce and developing aptitude deficiencies(Olaniran et al. 2015). A portion of the measures that can be viably received are preparing and prepping of ability in basic store network capacities, foundation of an inventory network focus of magnificence and industry/the scholarly world joint effort to support production network ability. To enhance and convey best-in-class inventory network hones, IOCs/NOCs can adjust or potentially execute a portion of the down to earth measures recorded beneath: Understand the aggregate estimation of major spend classifications. This requires altogether recognizing expenses and choices over the production network for every class and deciding suitable mediations (e.g., looking for new provider, evolving determinations, changing contract terms). Building custom-fit acquirement forms which have better lucidity and connect with providers ahead of schedule simultaneously (Francis 2015). In addition, complete to implementation and operation. Managing chances over the whole expense associated with the production of oil and gas and the individual activities or items, or expenses related with the operation. Proactive dealings with the supplier and selection of applicable providers, concentrating on the manageability and arrangement and providing guarantee to the organization proprietorship and responsibility is required to be clear to providers (Ablo 2015). Automation of the organizational framework capacities is required for increasing the efficiency of the current production and minimizes the wastage of the resources. The resources must be utilized for increasing the productivity and the automation of the system reduces the changes of errors in the system. Going ahead, it is understood that, despite the fact that a portion of the inventory network best practices have streamed through the oil and gas industry, there is dependably scope for further change. Better request arranging and upgraded stock administration can help oil and gas organizations keep up oil and gas gear uptime, and thus advantage from enhanced profitability(Silvestre and Gimenes 2017). Enhanced spend classification administration and shared provider relationship administration, combined with expanded automation of exchange handling, prompts to sourcing reserve funds and distinguishing proof of optional sparing open doors. We trust that the organization of inventory network best practices, combined with the usage of a solid programming arrangement, is the route forward for oil and gas organizations to decrease expenses, and concentrate on oil and gas generation and investigation in the most improved way. It will be truly intriguing to perceive how oil and gas organizations can viably oversee nearby substance sourcing joined with the reception of best-in-class inventory network hones in 2017. Conclusion From the above report it can be concluded that analyzing the procurement strategy for the oil and gas company can help the company to choose the best strategy. The implemented strategy is required to be aligned with the current business process of the organization and the risk associated with the implementation of the strategy is required to be analyzed. The risk can arise in the oil and gas companies are documented in the report, the risk mitigation strategies are also documented which helps the organization to face multifaceted challenges. A good project management skill is required for the management of the risk and maintain a sustainable growth for the organization. References Ablo, A.D., 2015. Local content and participation in Ghana's oil and gas industry: Can enterprise development make a difference?.The Extractive Industries and Society,2(2), pp.320-327. Ahiaga-Dagbui, D.D., Love, P.E., Whyte, A. and Boateng, P., 2017. Costing and Technological Challenges of Offshore Oil and Gas Decommissioning in the UK North Sea.Journal of Construction Engineering and Management, p.05017008. Al Hammadi, N. and Bernard, J.P., 2016. Key Performance Indicators for Assessing Project Peformance in the Oil and Gas Industry of the United Arab Emirates. Badiru, A.B. and Osisanya, S.O., 2016.Project management for the oil and gas industry: a world system approach. CRC Press. Bergh, L.I.V., Hinna, S., Leka, S. and Jain, A., 2014. Developing a performance indicator for psychosocial risk in the oil and gas industry.Safety science,62, pp.98-106. Connick, S., Pedroni, P.M., Terry, S., Nguessan, L., Johnston, M. and Romer, R.F., 2014, March. A Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services Management Framework for the Oil and Gas Sector. InSPE International Conference on Health, Safety, and Environment. Society of Petroleum Engineers. deCarvalho, M.M., Patah, L.A. and de Souza Bido, D., 2015. Project management and its effects on project success: Cross-country and cross-industry comparisons.International Journal of Project Management,33(7), pp.1509-1522. Francis, A., 2015. Analyzing the Environmental Impact Assessment Process for Sustainable Development of the Oil and Gas Industry in Trinidad and Tobago. Grant, R.M., 2013. The development of knowledge management in the oil and gas Industry/El desarrollo de la direccindelconocimientoen la industria del petroleo y gas.Universia Business Review, (40), p.92. Kelland, M.A., 2014.Production chemicals for the oil and gas industry. CRC press. Olaniran, O.J., Love, P.E.D., Edwards, D.J., Olatunji, O. and Matthews, J., 2015. Chaotic Dynamics of Cost Overruns in Oil and Gas Megaprojects: A Review.World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology, International Journal of Civil, Environmental, Structural, Construction and Architectural Engineering,9(7), pp.911-917. Parra, G. and Bono, R., 2016. Modularization of Electrical Systems in the Oil and Gas industry in the North Slope of Alaska.IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications. Ruck, P., Plana, J.O.L. and Edmunds, P., 2016, April. Sharing Information on Oil and Gas Activity in Marine Environments Using the IPIECA Marine Geospatial Bibliography. InSPE International Conference and Exhibition on Health, Safety, Security, Environment, and Social Responsibility. Society of Petroleum Engineers. Ruqaishi, M. and Bashir, H.A., 2013. Causes of delay in construction projects in the oil and gas industry in the gulf cooperation council countries: a case study.Journal of Management in Engineering,31(3), p.05014017. Salazar-Aramayo, J.L., Rodrigues-da-Silveira, R., Rodrigues-de-Almeida, M. and de Castro-Dantas, T.N., 2013. A conceptual model for project management of exploration and production in the oil and gas industry: The case of a Brazilian company.International Journal of Project Management,31(4), pp.589-601. Shuen, A., Feiler, P.F. and Teece, D.J., 2014. Dynamic capabilities in the upstream oil and gas sector: Managing next generation competition.Energy Strategy Reviews,3, pp.5-13. Silvestre, B.S. and Gimenes, F.A.P., 2017. A sustainability paradox? Sustainable operations in the offshore oil and gas industry: The case of Petrobras.Journal of Cleaner Production,142, pp.360-370. Williams, C.L., Kilanski, K. and Muller, C., 2014. Corporate diversity programs and gender inequality in the oil and gas industry.Work and occupations,41(4), pp.440-476. Yazdani, A., Ali Soukhakian, M. and Reza Mozaffari, M., 2014. Evaluation of critical success factors in total quality management implementation and prioritization with AHP-case study: Pars Oil and Gas Company.European Online Journal of Natural and Social Sciences: Proceedings,2(3 (s)), pp.pp-1624. Yusuf, Y.Y., Gunasekaran, A., Musa, A., Dauda, M., El-Berishy, N.M. and Cang, S., 2014. A relational study of supply chain agility, competitiveness and business performance in the oil and gas industry.International Journal of Production Economics,147, pp.531-543.

Monday, March 30, 2020

Personal Narrative Example Essay Sample free essay sample

It was a chilly. fall forenoon in 2011. My household and I were merely get downing to pack up our material and carry the bags to the new wave. Since we were traveling to Hawaii. on history of my stepdad being in the ground forces. we had to travel rapidly so that we’d make our 10 am flight on clip. As I walked back into the hotel room I made certain to catch my bag and notebook to set in the new wave. while my ma got herself and my siblings ready to travel. Very easy I opened the door to go forth the room and trudged down the hallway. towards the issue door off the edifice. while my brown ponytail bouncinesss with every measure. Once outside I began to set my properties in the vehicle when something traveling in the murky. swamp H2O caught my attending and pulled at my wonder until I stood in forepart of the fencing. We will write a custom essay sample on Personal Narrative Example Essay Sample or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page When I leaned my face on the cold metal of the barbed wire fencing I saw four eyes looking at me. Those eyes belonged to two alligators that were get downing to swim towards me. This had me so petrified that I ran like a human detesting cat to the new wave. Immediately I jumped into the driver place. slammed the door. and locked up the auto until my parents and siblings walked out of the hotel. Quickly. I coolly unlocked the door and waited for our going towards the airdrome. which felt like forever. â€Å"We’re here! † shouts my female parent as we pull up to the forepart of the air hoses. It was really a small exciting. but when we went through all of the security cheques I began to acquire really nervous and disquieted. I will acknowledge that it was really nerve fazing with all of those cheques because cipher would desire to happen out that a individual nearby has bombs and arms on manus. This though is worried me profoundly until we came across the bird train. Once on the train my female parent and four siblings sat on a place while my pa and I stood up and held on to a metal saloon. The saloon was connected from the floor to the ceiling to forestall falling. Sadly. I repeatedly lost my balance and tumbled down on my twelve-year-old sister. Melena. and swatted her in the face with my hair. She was really thankful when the train had stopped and I couldn’t say that I blamed her. Anyways. shortly after we got off the train we all headed to the nutrient tribunal draging behind one another. When we got there we went directly to McDonalds. ordered our nutrient. and ate for approximately 15 proceedingss. Then after we finished we went upstairs to travel delay for the plane in the waiting Lodge. I remember looking at such cunning small pictures lined up on the walls. one after the other. outside of the public toilets. They had painted by simple childs from different schools on the mainland. Soon after the bathroom interruption we walked down the hall to the waiting Lodge. I ended up falling asleep in the maroon colored chair.â€Å"Come on. Sierra. † . Melena said as she shook me and pulled out my earphones. Since I hated when she pulled out my earphones I was approximately to talk her. which was until she told me the plane had arrived and that we had to acquire up. As I put the iPod in my pocket and replaced it with my ticket I all of a sudden became more frightened to go forth the province of Georgia than a Canis familiaris is of electrical storms. Mutely. I gave the adult females outside the entryway my ticket and felt my spinal column making dance moves under my tegument. The feeling was really confounding. about like a mix of sad. scared nervous. excited. and hesitating. As I climbed on board of the plane my fortune and exhilaration flew out the window existent quick. For starting motors alternatively of sitting with my household I was stuck being seated following to random cat who appeared to be in his early twenty’s. This cat was genuinely unusual and annoyed me before the plane even took off by gazing at me. giving off fun facts about travel. and saw wooding truly loud following to my face. It was at those minutes when I thought to myself â€Å"This is traveling to be a long flight! † Then without vacillation the plane took away and we were airborne. Once we were in the air my ears began to do a ‘Ringing’ sound so I grabbed a piece of gum from my pa and allow the minty spirit devour my oral cavity while it drowned out the pealing with its loud ‘Pop’ sounds. All was good until I realized how high up we were a nd so my panic onslaught began. For about the first 25 proceedingss of the flight I was hyperventilating. but so I calmed down. When I was eventually chilled I put on the film Rio and listened to a vocal by JustinBieber on the iPod. In all honesty the fright I had all of a sudden seemed to melt off into the ‘Whoosh’ sound of the plane picking up velocity in the windy conditions. I guess it can be said that I adapted to the flight at a slow. but nice rate ( though it was largely because the annoying cat next to me eventually managed to kip in silence for a few hours ) . Although. I had a panic onslaught like a brainsick psycopath the plane trip didn’t seem so bad and in fact I ended up basking myself. Even though the flight took around 16 hours I managed to remain occupied. I did so by watching films. choping into the planes Wi-Fi. playing on the iPod. and playing games I downloaded to my laptop. My biggest enjoyment of the flight was the alleviation I felt when I realized that the plane was traveling to drop out of the sky like the Titanic in the ocean. After the full 16 hours on the plane ended we eventually arrived at the Hawaiian airdrome. Immediately I leaped out of my place and hurried to acquire my material and acquire off. Amusing thing about planes. though. is how the riders must be seated the full clip so when I hastily got up my legs felt asleep and I kept faltering like a rummy down the aisle. It was rather humourous. As petrified. as I was the feeling in my tummy had settled I was left want that the trip wasn’t over. Now. one time I had my material tightly gripped in my manus and managed to stabilise my walking I walked towards the issue. As I was go outing I took my clip mounting down the stairss and took one last expression at my yesteryear and so into my hereafter. Not merely to travel to the Ohana Airport Hotel with my household until we moved into military lodging. but to my personal hereafter and what would go of it. That. my friend. is how my first trip to Hawaii went and I discovered true panic and a sense of pleasant security.

Saturday, March 7, 2020

Biography of Nicolaus Otto and the Modern Engine

Biography of Nicolaus Otto and the Modern Engine One of the most important landmarks in engine design comes from Nicolaus Otto who in 1876 invented an effective gas motor engine- the first practical alternative to the steam engine. Otto built the first practical four-stroke internal combustion engine called the Otto Cycle Engine, and when he completed his engine, he built it into a  motorcycle. Born: June 14, 1832Died: January 26, 1891 Ottos Early Days Nicolaus Otto  was born the youngest of six children in Holzhausen, Germany. His father died in 1832 and he began school in 1838. After six years of good performance, he moved to the high school in  Langenschwalbach  until 1848. He did not complete his studies but was cited for good performance. Ottos main interest in school had been in science and technology but, nevertheless, he graduated after three years as a business apprentice in a small merchandise company. After completing his apprenticeship he moved to Frankfurt where he worked for Philipp Jakob Lindheimer as a salesman, selling tea,  coffee, and sugar.  He soon developed an interest in the new technologies of the day and began experimenting with building four-stroke engines (inspired by Lenoirs two-stroke gas-driven internal combustion engine). In late autumn of 1860, Otto and his brother learned of a novel gas engine that  Jean Joseph Etienne Lenoir  had built in Paris.  The brothers built a copy of the Lenoir engine and applied for a patent in January 1861 for a  liquid-fueled  engine based on the Lenoir (Gas) engine with the Prussian Ministry of Commerce but it was rejected. The engine ran just a few minutes before breaking. Ottos brother gave up on the concept resulting in Otto looking for help elsewhere. After meeting Eugen Langen, a technician, and owner of a sugar factory, Otto quit his job, and in 1864, the duo started the worlds first engine manufacturing company N.A. Otto Cie (now DEUTZ AG, Kà ¶ln). In 1867, the pair were awarded a Gold Medal at the Paris World Exhibition for their atmospheric gas engine built a year earlier. Four-Stroke Engine In May 1876,  Nicolaus  Otto built the first practical four-stroke piston cycle internal combustion engine. He continued to develop his four-stroke engine after 1876 and he considered his work finished after his invention of the first magneto ignition system for low voltage ignition in 1884. Ottos patent was overturned in 1886 in favor of the patent granted to  Alphonse  Beau de Roaches for his four-stroke engine. However, Otto built a working engine while Roaches design stayed on paper. On October 23, 1877, another patent for a gas motor engine was issued to Nicolaus Otto, and Francis and William Crossley. In all, Otto built the following engines: 1861 A copy of Lenoirs atmospheric engine1862 A four-cycle compressed charge engine (prior to Rochass patent) which failed as it broke almost immediately1864 The first successful atmospheric engine1876 The four-stroke compressed charge engine which is acknowledged as the Otto cycle engine. The term Otto cycle is applied to all compressed charge, four cycle engines.